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G20 Summit Day 1 Highlights: From Adoption Of Delhi Declaration To Global Biofuels Alliance Launch, See Key Takeaways

G20 Summit 2023 Day 2 has begun and the leaders have started arriving at the Raj Ghat, to pay homage to Mahatma Gandhi. Before the third session begins at Bharat Mandapam, take a look at the major highlights or key takeaways of the G20 Summit 2023 Day 1.

Updated: September 10, 2023 9:54 AM IST

By Ananya Srivastava

Representative Image (Photo_ANI)
Representative Image (Photo_ANI)

New Delhi: The first day of G20 Summit 2023 on September 9 proved to be extremely historic and successful under G20 India Presidency. The day which began with a warm welcome of all the world leaders and Heads of state by PM Modi, ended with a royal dinner hosted by the President of India, Droupadi Murmu. The inaugural day of this international meet concluded with a hundred percent consensus on many issues including Delhi Declaration, Russia-Ukraine Conflict, the India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor and Permanent G20 Membership to African Union. Before the deliberations and discussions of G20 Summit 2023 Day 2 begin, read in detail, the key takeaways or major highlights of the first day of the G20 Summit which was held at Bharat Mandapam, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi, India.

G20 Summit 2023: New Delhi G20 Leaders’ Summit Declaration

On Saturday, September 9, 2023, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced the adoption of the New Delhi G20 Leaders’ Declaration. The declaration highlighted and noted the grave human suffering and the highly negative impact of the wars and conflicts around the world. The declaration is deemed historic as it was adopted with a 100 percent consensus after about 150 hours of discussion and all 83 paragraphs of this declaration were passed unanimously; China and Russia have also agreed to the terms of the Declaration.

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PM Modi said, ‘History has been created with the adoption of the New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration. United in consensus and spirit, we pledge to work collaboratively for a better, more prosperous, and harmonious future. My gratitude to all fellow G20 members for their support and cooperation.’ The Declaration can be read here in detail; check main points-

1. Strong, Sustainable, Balanced And Inclusive Growth

  • Global Economic Situation
  • Unlocking Trade for Growth
  • Preparing for the Future of Work
  • Advancing Financial Inclusion
  • Fighting Corruption

2. Accelerating Progress On Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

  • Recommitting To Achieving SDGs
  • Eliminating Hunger and Malnutrition
  • Macroeconomic Impacts of Food and Energy Insecurity
  • Strengthening Global Health And Implementing One Health Approach
  • Finance-Health Collaboration
  • Delivering Quality Education
  • Culture as a Transformative Driver of SDGs

3. Green Development Pact For a Sustainable Future

  • Macroeconomic Risks Stemming from Climate Change and Transition Pathways
  • Mainstreaming Lifestyles for Sustainable Development (LiFE)
  • Designing a Circular Economy World
  • Implementing Clean, Sustainable, Just, Affordable and Inclusive Energy Transitions
  • Conserving, Protecting, Sustainably Using and Restoring Ecosystems
  • Harnessing and Preserving the Ocean-Based Economy
  • Ending Plastic Pollution
  • Financing Cities of Tomorrow
  • Reducing Disaster Risk and Building Resilient Infrastructure

4. Multilateral Institutions for the 21st Century

  • Reinvigorating Multilateralism
  • Reforming International Financial Institutions
  • Managing Global Debt Vulnerabilities
  • Technological Transformation and Digital Public Infrastructure
  • Building Digital Public Infrastructure
  • Building Safety, Security, Resilience And Trust In The Digital Economy
  • Crypto-Assets: Policy And Regulation
  • Central Bank Digital Currency
  • Fostering Digital Ecosystems
  • Harnessing Artificial Intelligence (AI) Responsibly for Good and for All

5. International Taxation

  • Gender Equality And Empowering All Women and Girls
  • Enhancing Economic and Social Empowerment
  • Bridging the Gender Digital Divide
  • Driving Gender Inclusive Climate Action
  • Securing Women’s Food Security, Nutrition and Well-Being
  • Creation of a Working Group on the Empowerment of Women

6. Financial Sector Issues

7. Countering Terrorism and Money Laundering

8. Creating a More Inclusive World

Permanent Member Of G20: African Union

On September 9, 2023, right before the beginning of the first session, PM Narendra Modi announced that the African Union will now be part of the ‘Group of 20’ (G20), as a permanent member. The Prime Minister also highlighted the significance of India’s G20 Presidency to amplify the voices of the Global South. The Head of African Union, Azali Assoumani was invited to join the members and the session commenced post that. PM Modi welcomed the African Union to the G20 Fold with the faith of a brighter future for the Global South.

Russia-Ukraine Conflict

A consensus has also been reached by the G20 leaders regarding the Russia-Ukraine Conflict. The leaders have decided unanimously that all States must ‘refrain from the threat, or use, of force to seek territorial acquisition’ and also said that the use of nuclear weapons shall be ‘inadmissible’. Even though the Delhi Declaration does not name Russia in connection with the war, it is still a very critical remark of the attack by the country on Ukraine and also signals a climbdown from the Indonesia Declaration last year. The declaration did not condemn Russia for their attack directly, instead, highlighted their ‘deep concern for the immense human suffering and adverse impact of wars and conflicts around the world’.

According to the Delhi Declaration, “We call on all states to uphold the principles of international law including territorial integrity and sovereignty, international humanitarian law and the multilateral system that safeguards peace and stability.” Unlike the G20 Bali Leaders’ Declaration 2022, New Delhi Declaration does not deplore Russia’s aggression and invasion of Ukraine. The declaration also mentioned the Russia-Ukraine conflict as ‘war in Ukraine’ and not ‘war against Ukraine’.

India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEE EC)

Another important decision taken at the G20 Summit 2023 Day 1, was the plan to establish an ambitious India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEE EC). This is an effort to compete against or ‘rival’ China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI); it will encourage and provide impetus to economic development with the help of better, enhanced connectivity and economic integration between Europe, Asia and Middle East. The corridor is expected to comprise of two separate corridors- East Corridor which will connect India to Middle East and a Northern Corridor which will connect Middle East to Europe.

Along with this, an initiative to link railways, ports, data networks, hydrogen pipelines and electricity has also been discussed among India, US, Saudi Arabia, United Aram Emirates (UAE) and the European Union among others. US President Joe Biden has called this a ‘game-changing regional investment’.

Launch Of Global Biofuels Alliance

India, on the first day of the G20 Summit, after the second session, announced the launch of Global Biofuels Alliance which is one of the top priorities under India’s G20 Presidency. This alliance was launched in the presence of US President Joe Biden, President of Argentina Alberto Fernández, President of Brazil Luiz Inacio, Giorgia Meloni who is the Prime Minister of Italy among other Heads of State.

United States, Brazil and India, the leading biofuel producers and consumers, for the next few months, will work together to develop the Global Biofuels Alliance and will also include other nations who may be interested. The alliance will mirror the International Solar Alliance (ISA) which was piloted by New Delhi and Paris in 2015 to bring clean, affordable solar energy for all.

PM Modi also proposed the launch of G20 Satellite Mission for Environment and Climate Observation’ and requested and urged leaders to begin work on the Green Credit Initiative.

PM Modi’s country placard at the session which read ‘Bharat’ instead of ‘India’ also garnered a lot of attention, adding fuel to fire regarding the name change of the country. The G20 Summit 2023, which is being held at the Bharat Mandapam, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi will conclude today, September 10.

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